Overview

What is the Topic:  Exploring the roots of WASTE MANAGEMENT from HOMES TO INDUSTRIES.



What are the objectives :


• To know about Waste management. 
• Understand the hazards of improper waste disposal. 
• Analyse the hardships faced and the hurdles overcome. 
• Exploring traditional waste management techniques used at home. 



2.

What is the content :



This is to understand how the community and people of Faridabad has been dealing with waste and how do the see waste as JUNK OR TREASURE.

The contribution of the people and different organizations in management and segregation of waste.

Looking deeply into traditional waste management techniques used by our community especially by home makers.

We hope to bring awareness about the importance of waste management and sensitize young children towards different techniques to reuse, reduce and recycling waste used in our culture for generations.



3.

How has the research been conducted :



The research method of this Cyber fair includes group discussion, personal participation, questionnaire, workshops, conducting Interviews, N



4.

What is the progression of the research :



Excel ss to be added


5.

Learning Outcomes :



Feeling connected to your roots, exploring one’s origins, has always fascinated humanity over the centuries. Our students were no less. This project also started with such a vision. It has brought a positive impact on the academic learnings of the students who participated in this project. 

While working on this project they have been able to demonstrate a complexity of understanding and improved ability to understand ambiguity. A tangible impact on their academic outcomes such as problem solving, critical thinking and cognitive development is clearly evident.  

They have developed a sense of improved social responsibility and citizenship skills. A greater inter cultural understanding can be observed among the student community.  

A new spectrum for research and publication has opened up which has not only benefitted the students rather has enhanced the community and Aravali Institutions relations. 




Information Tools Technology



Information technology (IT) involves the study and application of computers and any type of telecommunication that stores, retrieve, studies, transmit, manipulate data and send information. Information technology involves a combination of hardware and software that is used to perform the essential tasks that people need and use on an everyday basis.

It wasn’t possible for us to create our website without these information tools and technologies.


Tools:


 Notepad++
 Pixlr.com
 Dreamweaver
 Sublime Text
 Help from Google and YouTube
 Baker-Bootstrap
 CDN (content delivery network)
 HTML
 CSS
 Javascript
 JQuery


Technology :

Technology is not only changing the education curriculum, but it’s also transforming traditional paradigms of learning. As it is 2022 today, most of us used the latest technologies notepad (Notepad++), Web browsers, and the recently created sources like Baker-bootstrap and HTML.







Junk or Treasure


Protecting the environment by responsible waste disposal-
There is no 'away'.

UN-SDGS and Swaccha Bharat Abhiyan

Read More

Waste

Read More

Waste Segregation

Read More

Waste Disposal

Read More

Environmental Impact

Read More

Protect and unite

Read More

Reflection

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Contributions

Read More

Our school's website
https://aravali.edu.in

GOONJ VISIT

DATE-4th December 2021

Goonj aims to build an equitable relationship of strength, sustenance and dignity between the cities and villages using the under-utilized urban material as a tool to trigger development with dignity, across the country.





Goonj works with underprivileged sector of the country in over 7 states of India. From cloths to electronics Goonj is implying the 3R's at its best. During our visits we came across their workshops which uses urban waste to make something useful and meaningful out of it which could add comfort to rural or underprivileged sections of our society. The journey of our visit started with the reusing and recycling of urban cloth waste. Goonj wash, repairs and turns them into comfortable clothing which could be wore by anyone who is in need. They put in a huge effort in making special family kits which could cater with the need of a whole family, including 2 adults and 2 children.







Another beautiful initiative was reusing and reducing stationary waste. In rich livelihoods it is very common for us to throw away broken crayons, small pencils, broken erasers, one sided used paper, old bags, bottles etc. Goonj channelize these waste items from urban sector which has this type of material in surplus in making small school kits for kids in need. They provide underprivileged school kids with this material and the waste crayons can now again fill colors into someone's dreams.


We all know that marriage is a memorable moment in all our lives. The wedding industry in our country is a huge market. On one hand people spend millions on a one-day celebration whereas there is a section of our country who couldn't afford a simple wedding dress. Goonj corrects jewelry and unused cosmetics to customize marriage kits. The best practice which we saw here was that they canalize the waste cloth pieces which we offer in temples ( mata ke chunri) into beautiful lehengas for the brides.


The my pad campaign of GOONJ is something which doesn't even need an introduction.





Cloth is a basic need of a woman as is her self-respect and dignity. It is this symbiotic relationship between the two that calls for, "Not just a piece of cloth". So Goonj started with the simple activity of making a clean cotton cloth available. It could do this given its pan India network and processes around clothes collection. This started in 2005, when Goonj first worked on more than 100 trucks of Tsunami disaster wastage. The first insight on what kind of cloth should be used, came from the 40 women from nearby slums who were working on sorting the mammoth cloth piles. These women started by personally using the various samples. From this small practical lab at the grass-root level, evolved the length, width, thickness ad so on of the first MY Pad. Many of us may have different ideas about what a sanitary pad should look like but thinking of the women who couldn't even afford enough cloth, a basic pad was ready.


STUDENT EXPERIENCES





The visit to Goonj was an amazing and interesting tour. The story behind Goonj was really inspiring. Giving the contributions as a reward to the people who deserve it, encourages and motivates them to work even harder. It's true that it gives them a sense of dignity and a feeling that they have earned it. The idea of recycling, upcycling and channelizing urban waste to rural resources is really innovative and creative. Giving products a second life helps us to be eco-friendly as well. It is hard to believe that old clothes, stationary and cassette reels can be transformed into new trendy-looking products which clearly don't look second-handed & are really tempting. The best part is everything is contributed and nothing is bought. Goonj provides opportunities to underprivileged people & people in disaster hit areas by fulfilling material gaps, ensuring they too lead a better life. Its initiative is, without a doubt, a step towards promoting circular economy. I love the whole idea Goonj and its crucial part in the betterment of our society.


It isn't just about recycling, it is the art of transforming ordinary things into extraordinary.


-Harini Arunkumar(VIII)



CREATIVITY AT IT'S BEST


It was a wonderful experience. I saw a lot of new and innovative things, and I saw that there is nothing that can't be recycled or reused. They had a lot of highly innovative ideas for reusing different kinds of waste. For example, they used the silver reels found in cassettes to do beautiful embroidery on jute bags, folders, handbags, etc. with looms. And even those bags and folders were made by waste denim from old jeans and clothes with strong fabric. They have made different storage units for the storage of used items donated by people. Then the sorting of these items is done by women workers and it also it also promotes women employment. After sorting they use them for different purposes, like the clothes and items which are well and can be reused are donated to poor people with kits. They have different kits like marriage kit, family kit. etc. The interesting thing about the marriage kit is that, there are many poor brides who want to wear lehengas on their marriages but they can't afford it so in Goonj, the "Mata ki chunaris" which are disposed in rivers at the time of festivals are reused and converted into beautiful lehengas for them. They keep books as well which are kept well sorted into categories like story books, academic books, competitive exam guides, novels, etc. And one more thing which I found very interesting and nice was that they have made a small museum of antique things that they find in the donations, like gramophones, coins, stamps, radios, etc. One more thing I liked was that they do not directly give hose kits to poor people, they make them earn it, like they give these kits as earning to poor people who work on contracts for constructions work, etc. This system makes them feel they have earned something and they deserve it. They also have one side paper books, like they store used papers which are printed or used from one side and the other side is empty. They make notepads and notebooks with the empty sides of paper.

-Ritwik Dadarwal(VIII)



GOONJ...A Voice an Effort


What wise words! Goonj was an undeniably creative experience. I'd never thought how even the least of waste could be turned into something so valuable and useful for the needy. Goonj inspires people every day, it motivates them to have a soft corner for humanity, and most importantly wonder of all the possibilities of how the world can be a better place. Talking a bit particularly, Goonj uses simple techniques to turn waste of things (that we never even wondered could actually do much harm to our environment) to resources that are sent to the most remote areas of our country, where those are actually required. The aspect of Goonj that perhaps influenced me the most was their 'Not just a piece of cloth' mission. Their mission was to, most importantly aware people about the difficulties women (especially those in remote areas) face during menstruation. Women, that do not have access to pads or other menstruation devices endure so much pain, they do not have comfort and are at risk with infections, which can even lead to death. How does Goonj help? Goonj uses everything and anything that people contribute. They do not waste anything. During the tour, they showed us how- Firstly, clothes are washed and sanitized for about 48 hours, then they are scanned by metal detectors so that no small hook or pin is left in the clothes, which can lead to discomfort and infections. Then, in the production unit, they are converted into pads and then handed out in the My PAD kit, in which there is an instruction manual and bags which secure these reusable napkins. They are cheap, eco-friendly, reusable, and sustainable. Now, the thing to be noted is how in addition to helping women with such a critical problem, Goonj also portrays a solution to the upcoming sanitary pads disposal issue. During the tour, I noticed how the women working in the mission were filled with pride and were fearless. They were open upon talking about menstruation to any stranger and totally contradicted the taboos with it. Perhaps, the main lesson I took away from the tour is how, things that we usually take for granted, can be a matter of life and death for another.

-Guni Arora(VIII)

UNSDG's:





The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015, provides a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future. At its heart are the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are an urgent call for action by all countries - developed and developing - in a global partnership. They recognize that ending poverty and other deprivations must go hand-in-hand with strategies that improve health and education, reduce inequality, and spur economic growth – all while tackling climate change and working to preserve our oceans and forests.
The SDGs build on decades of work by countries and the UN, including the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs



• In June 1992, at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, more than 178 countries adopted Agenda 21, a comprehensive plan of action to build a global partnership for sustainable development to improve human lives and protect the environment.

• Member States unanimously adopted the Millennium Declaration at the Millennium Summit in September 2000 at UN Headquarters in New York. The Summit led to the elaboration of eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to reduce extreme poverty by 2015.

• The Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development and the Plan of Implementation, adopted at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in South Africa in 2002, reaffirmed the global community's commitments to poverty eradication and the environment, and built on Agenda 21 and the Millennium Declaration by including more emphasis on multilateral partnerships.

• At the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 2012, Member States adopted the outcome document "The Future We Want" in which they decided, inter alia, to launch a process to develop a set of SDGs to build upon the MDGs and to establish the UN High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development. The Rio +20 outcome also contained other measures for implementing sustainable development, including mandates for future programmes of work in development financing, small island developing states and more.

• In 2013, the General Assembly set up a 30-member Open Working Group to develop a proposal on the SDGs.



Today, the Division for Sustainable Development Goals (DSDG) in the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) provides substantive support and capacity-building for the SDGs and their related thematic issues, including water, energy, climate, oceans, urbanization, transport, science and technology, the Global Sustainable Development Report (GSDR), partnerships and Small Island Developing States. DSDG plays a key role in the evaluation of UN systemwide implementation of the 2030 Agenda and on advocacy and outreach activities relating to the SDGs. In order to make the 2030 Agenda a reality, broad ownership of the SDGs must translate into a strong commitment by all stakeholders to implement the global goals. DSDG aims to help facilitate this engagement.






Climate Action :


Climate action is undoubtedly the need of the hour as our entire civilization is reeling under the threat of global warming that looms large over us. Unfortunately, it is a result of our own actions but fortunately it can be controlled to some extent. Global Industrialization revolutionized the world economy but it’s loop sided effect was that it slowly led to harming our environment.



Human action releases greenhouse gases in the environment that traps the heat and makes our planet get warmer. These things include, using lots of petrol in cars, cutting down trees, farming animals for meat, using coal and oil in factories. Hotter Earth leads to melting of ice caps. If the ice in these cold places’ melts, polar animals won’t have anywhere to live and sea levels across the world will rise. If sea levels continue to rise because of global warming, then neighbouring islands that have people living will disappear!

Hotter temperatures across the world may cause droughts. Droughts happen when there is not enough water from rain. Plants that animals and people need to eat will not grow without water.

Droughts result in less water and food for people to have to survive. Global warming also causes extreme weather. This includes things like bad storms, hurricanes and tornadoes. This kind of weather can damage buildings and injure people.

Climate action can be linked to Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. In an attempt to clean our surroundings, we can recycle trash. If things are recycled, factories don’t have to make as many new things. This means less oil and coal will be used.



How is waste affecting climate?


We can’t deny that waste is an inevitable bi-product of human life. Whether in large or small amounts, we all produce waste. The way that we manage waste however is the most important factor that affects climate change. Improper waste does not only result in litter everywhere, but it also affects our environment and results in air and sea pollution. Not only is climate change affecting the environment, but also human life. In addition to changes in the natural world, climate change is also causing frightful changes to our biological system. Environmental hazards to human health are becoming more prevalent.



Contribution from waste to climate change


The disposal and treatment of waste can produce emissions of several greenhouse gases (GHGs), which contribute to global climate change. The most significant GHG gas produced from waste is methane. It is released during the breakdown of organic matter in landfills. Other forms of waste disposal also produce GHGs but these are mainly in the form of carbon dioxide (a less powerful GHG).



Responsible Consumption and Production





The issue of resource use is vital for the country. While the country is home to 18% of the world’s population, it has only 4% of global water resources. The generation of waste and pollutants also poses a challenge. Only 19.9% of India’s urban waste is processed. India is the third highest emitter of carbon-dioxide and is responsible for 6.9% of global emissions. However, in October 2015, India made a commitment to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 20-25% from its 2005 levels by 2020 and by 33-35% by 2030. On 2 October 2016 India formally ratified the historic Paris Agreement. The National Policy on Biofuels and the National Clean Energy Fund are some of the government’s flagship schemes aimed at achieving sustainable consumption and production, and managing the efficient use of natural resources.

When we produce more than we consume it leads to wastage. Our resources are limited but our needs are unlimited. As very rightly stated by our father of the Nation Mahatma Gandhi, “Earth can provide enough for every man’s need but not for every man’s greed. Wastage of food, electricity, petrol and other products leads to over production. Using less electricity can help stop global warming. We can do this by switching off lights or the TV when we leave a room.
Using less plastic is another way we can help to stop global warming and also will help us create less trash and thus contribute towards Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. You can reuse shopping bags and buy things that have less plastic packaging and also less plastic waste that will prevent release of more greenhouse gases due to undecomposed waste plastic. Walking, cycling or scootering more will also help. Fewer car journeys mean less petrol is used, this way we are responsibly using petrol and help save the resources by manufacturing less petrol. If we all make a few small changes, we can help stop global warming.
Farm animals produce a gas called methane. This gas has been linked to global warming. If we eat less of meat these animals will not be forcefully reproduced for profits by artificial methods of use of hormones and unhygienic conditions. Planting new trees in parks and gardens helps to improve our air. Thus, we conclude that climate action, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and Responsible consumption and production are interconnected and requires a perfect balance amongst them to enable to lead a healthy happy life in a pollution free and safe environment.




Responsible Consumption & Production : Why it matters ?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YZqSgguqnXE



SWACHH BHARAT ABHIYAN:


India, or better we call it as Bharat is an ancient civilization. It is considered to be a religious nation. India consists of people of various faiths; Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Shikhas, Parsis, Jains etc., and they follow their faiths very devotedly. But it is a sad reality of our country that all the cleanliness and piousness is only confined to religious activities or kitchen. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is one of the most popular and significant missions in the History of India. This campaign was introduced by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, and was launched on 2nd October 2014 to honor Mahatma Gandhi’s vision of a clean country. The major objective of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is to spread the awareness of cleanliness and the importance of it. The concept of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is to provide basic sanitation facilities like toilets, solid and liquid waste disposal systems, village cleanliness, and safe and adequate drinking water supply to every person

“A clean India would be the best tribute India could pay to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary in 2019," said Shri Narendra Modi as he launched the Swachh Bharat Mission at Rajpath in New Delhi.
While leading the mass movement for cleanliness, the Prime Minister exhorted people to fulfil Mahatma Gandhi’s dream of a clean and hygienic India. Shri Narendra Modi himself initiated the cleanliness drive at Mandir Marg Police Station. Picking up the broom to clean the dirt, making Swachh Bharat Abhiyan a mass movement across the nation, the Prime Minister said people should neither litter, nor let others litter. He gave the mantra of ‘Na gandagi karenge, Na karne dengue.’ Shri Narendra Modi also invited nine people to join the cleanliness drive and requested each of them to draw nine more into the initiative.

The Prime Minister has helped spread the message of Swachh Bharat by urging people through his words & action. He carried out a cleanliness drive in Varanasi as well. He wielded a spade near River Ganga at Assi Ghat in Varanasi under the Clean India Mission. He was joined by a large group of local people who cooperated in the Swachhta Abhiyan. Understanding the significance of sanitation, Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has simultaneously addressed the health problems that roughly half of the Indians families have to deal with due to lack of proper toilets in their homes.
Prime Minister himself has praised the efforts by people and various departments and organizations for taking part in the Swachh Bharat Mission and contributing toward a cleaner India. Shri Narendra Modi has always openly lauded the participation of people via social media. The ‘#MyCleanIndia’ was also launched simultaneously as a part of the Swachh Bharat drive to highlight the cleanliness work carried out by citizens across the nation.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan has become a ‘Jan Andolan’ receiving tremendous support from the people. Citizens too have turned out in large numbers and pledged for a neat and cleaner India. Taking the broom to sweep the streets, cleaning up the garbage, focusing on sanitation and maintaining a hygienic environment have become a practice after the launch of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. People have started to take part and are helping spread the message of ‘Cleanliness is next to Godliness.’

WASTE




WHAT IS WASTE ?

Human population is increasing exponentially and activities to either fulfil basic necessities of life or improve lifestyle of masses result in production of more waste materials. Waste is defined as the substance that is of no utility, purpose or value anymore and is left over after productive use or which is beyond any use in its current form and is generally discarded as unwanted. We all generate huge quantities of waste in our day to day lives.

We throw away fruit peels, empty packets of chips, biscuits, groundnut shells, pencil shavings etc. rather than trying to use them in some form or the other.


TYPES OF WASTE :

Waste can be differentiated into two broad categories on the basis of source:


Rural Waste





Rural waste is coined as the biodegradable organic waste produced in villages majorly due to agricultural practices. In rural areas, examples of rural waste include wastes from kitchens, gardens, cattle sheds, agricultural waste such as animal excreta, crop remains, pesticides, and materials such as metal, paper, plastic, cloth, and so on. They are generally organic in nature and can be decomposed due to natural processes. Due to this composting is a highly suitable method of waste management in rural areas.





Research Plan Worksheet - Click Here

BIBLIOGRAPHY

https://www.exampleslab.com/20-examples-of-inorganic-wastes/
https://notesread.com/organic-waste10-examples-must-know/
https://delhigreens.com/2020/05/15/8-types-of-wastes-and-their-management-rules-in-india/
https://vikaspedia.in/energy/environment/waste-management/solid-and-liquid-waste-management-in-rural-areas

WASTE SEGREGATION


Waste segregation is a process under which the garbage or waste is separated into different groups. waste is divided into two categories the first one is dry waste and the second one is wet waste.

What is waste segregation to our society?


Waste segregation reduces waste to a large extent which will occupy the space of landfills & all these spaces communities use for social purposes. It is also suitable for families and their kids to spend time without any fear of getting sick.




Waste Segregation in Residential Complexes and societies :--


1. Form a group of like-minded people

2. Explain waste segregation to your family / neighbours in your apartment building.

3. Get the staff in the apartment building to understand how it works

4. Get separate storage drums for storing the dry waste and wet waste

5. Have the dry waste picked up by the municipal Dry waste collection centre or your local scrap dealer.



How waste segregation is useful and what are its benefits ?


Proper waste segregation allows the organization of waste according to their types

The waste segregation plays an important role of managing the waste thrown from each house by and not letting them to get mixed with the other wastes, for instance, dry wastes like cardboard should not get mixed with the wet wastes like soiled food, as the moisture from them will ruin the competency of cardboard


It makes recycling of various waste products easier and efficient

Waste segregation helps in retaining the competency of various objects to get recycled into a new product, and as that happens less amount non-recyclable waste goes to the landfills, which makes it better for us and environment itself. It also makes it cost effective as the price of chemicals and transportation reduces






Proper waste segregation improves the quality of air and water in our surroundings

When we dispose of mixed waste, not only is each material difficult to separate, it also releases toxins in our air, water and soil. The breakdown of these materials in landfills in the absence of air produces methane - a deadly greenhouse gas, that is nearly 25- 30 times more potent than carbon dioxide.


Waste segregation helps communities and numerous families

Waste segregation eliminates waste to a large extent that could occupy space as landfills, but thanks to this process, now the land being cleared or saved from becoming a dumping-ground can be used for social and community activities, for instance it could make a playground where children can play freely.


Waste Segregation


How can we segregate our waste at home?

We can segregate our waste at home by practicing few points like -:

1. Keep separate containers for dry and wet waste in the kitchen
2. Keep two bags for dry waste collection- paper and plastic, for the rest of the household waste
3. Keep plastic from the kitchen clean and dry and drop into the dry waste bin. Keep glass /plastic containers rinsed of food matter
4. Send wet waste out of the home daily. Store and send dry waste out of the home, once a week.
5. Keep a paper bag for throwing the sanitary waste.



Few steps to initiate waste management

1. Form a group of like-minded people
2. Explain waste segregation to your family / neighbours in your apartment building.
3. Get the staff in the apartment building to also understand
4. Get separate storage drums for storing the dry waste and wet waste.
5. Have the dry waste picked up by the Dry waste collection centre or your local scrap dealer



The Importance of Colour Bins


What are Coloured Bins ?

Disposing bins are usually colored in order make the people aware of the type of waste that is supposed to be thrown in them. By doing so different kinds and categories of waste do not get mixed and hence, it makes it easier and efficient to manage the waste


What are Color Bins used for?

Color bins are required to compile similar wastes together in order to separate them from other wastes. The correct separation of waste makes it easier determine and recycle the waste to form other usable products such as furniture, carpets, cereal boxes, glass, etc.


How to use Colour Bins ?

We have to dispose different wastes according to their assigned colors -:
BLUE - Paper Recycling.
GREEN - Organic Recycling.
RED - Landfill Waste.
YELLOW - Mixed Recycling.


STUDENT EXPERIENCES

The waste segregation drive was wonderful, it was very informative and we got a chance to teach a lot of children about proper segregation of waste. hey all learnt a lot of new things and got inspired for proper waste segregation, disposal, and using color bins. We conducted many fun activities like the children were given a few chits on which names of different wastes were written and they had to throw it in the correct bin. The promised us that they 'll ask their parents to use 2 different bins for proper waste segregation. Overall, it was a wonderful and erudite experience.


-Ritwik Dadarwal(VIII)





BIBLIOGRAPHY


   https://justeco.in/importance-of-waste-segregation/
   https://thecsjournal.in/why-its-good-to-segregate-waste-at-home/
   https://axil-is.com/waste-segregation/



Waste Disposal


“We don’t want to live in a trash can so stop making it one".


The disposal of waste is one of the environment’s biggest challenges globally. The brutal truth about it is that it lacks proper management and further innovative and inventive ideology, which to be improved, must be one of the world’s top priorities otherwise, it can lead to major problems that are to be faced by both humans and other organisms. The problems are-: Infecting the world's oceans, clogging sewers and causing flooding, transferring infections, increasing respiratory problems from burning, injuring animals that unwittingly consume waste, and interfering with economic progress are all consequences of waste.


HISTORY: ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL & MODERN


Waste Disposal is an eternal part of our lives. From cavemen to present times, we have been disposing of our waste in different ways. But how many of us know how did we dispose of our waste in ancient and medieval times? Not many of us might be knowing. So, let's go back in time to see how our ancestors disposed of their waste.





ANCIENT PERIOD:


As we know, there was no technology during Neolithic times. Due to this, usually, the waste was left here and there. But, the Harappan Civilization in South-East Asia had an efficient drainage system. They were skilled architects and engineers. They made their drainage system with precisely made terracotta or mud bricks. The houses were connected with the pipelines made from these bricks. Then, this waste would be collected in a cesspit. The solid waste (if any) would be kept aside, probably for making fertilizers.





MEDIEVAL PERIOD:


Maybe, medieval people would be more advanced in waste management than ancient people, right? Wrong! Actually, many of the people were ignorant in case of waste management and sanitation also. Due to this ignorance, many diseases like Bubonic Plague, Black Death etc. created havoc during those times and opened the eyes of the people and they created more strict rules like no dumping of waste in rivers like the Thames and other water bodies.

MODERN PERIOD:


Thankfully, the modern age made advances in sanitation and waste management. Many ideas like landfills and converting plastic to brick have been discovered and implemented also. Composting and gobar gas has also made our life easier. The 3Rs have also helped a lot too.







LANDFILLS

What are landfills?
In every city, there is a place where all kinds of garbage and waste is dumped on daily basis, that place is called a landfill.
It is essential to lessen the measure of landfill gases – methane and carbon dioxide stirring up with the air, which can be destructive to the earth and living creatures.
However, landfills can't be worked in ecologically-delicate regions, and they are set utilizing nearby natural-observing frameworks.


Bandhwari landfill on Gurugram-Faridabad Road is threatening the biodiversity and health of people in villages in Haryana state. A look into it:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZYlCNDy4es&t=135s

Let’s look at the factors causing the need for landfills.


Causes of landfills


1. Solid waste – It is the main donor of landfill garbage disposal. The greater part of these wastes at last end up in the landfills.
2. Agricultural waste – Rural leftovers are profoundly harmful and can harm land and water assets. Once in the landfills, the wastes stay there for quite a long time affecting the soil quality and dirtying the land.
3. Industrial and construction waste – Includes waste from power plants, petrol treatment offices, and so forth. By far, most of them are biodegradable and sum to fill the landfills.
4. Urbanization and population growth – Expanding urbanization and populace development rate is impressively responsible for the expanded number of landfills across the world. With the expansion of populace and metropolitan development, the interest for manufactured items and materials increments. As the interest increments, so does the expansion of solid wastes.

Anything that has caused, must have effects too.


Effects of landfills


1. Air pollution & atmospheric effects – Methane gas is normally delivered during the course of natural matter rot. Beside the methane gas, other family and agrarian synthetic compounds that observe way to the landfills like dye and alkali can create harmful gases that can enormously affect the air quality inside the landfill area.
2. Groundwater contamination - Residue, particulate matter and other non-synthetic debases can likewise be removed into the air, further adding to air quality issues.
3. Health effects – People living next to landfills suffer from severe health complications such as birth defects, particular cancers, and different others.
4. Soil & land pollution – Landfills straightforwardly supply the dirt and land where it is found unusable. It additionally eliminates the adjacent soil and land region in light of the fact that the poisonous synthetic compounds spread throughout the surrounding soil with time. The upper layer of the soil is harmed, twisting soil ripeness and movement and influencing vegetation. Industrial and electronic wastes in the landfills annihilate the nature of the soil and land. In this manner, disturbing the land biological systems.
5. Economic costs – The economic and social cost of landfill management is very high. From the management of the gases coming out of the landfills to groundwater contamination management, and ensuring compliance with environmental regulatory policies drains a lot of the municipality’s and tax payer’s money in terms of integrated waste management.
6. Landfill fires – Landfill gases along with a considerable measure of landfill waste, can easily light a fire.
How about we now head on to a portion of the upsides of landfills?


Advantages:


• Landfills are an excellent energy source.
• Modern landfills are eco-friendly.
• They keep cities, towns, and districts clean.
• Keep hazardous waste segregated.
• Landfills are cheap.
• Landfills support jobs and local business.
We should now discuss the drawbacks of landfills.


Disadvantages:


Landfills are partially responsible for climate change and global warming.
• Methane in the landfills lights up easily.
• Contaminate soil and groundwater.
• Landfills affect wildlife
• Landfills affect human health
• Accidents can happen

It's an ideal time to know about the solutions of landfills.





Solutions of landfills


• The construction of modern landfills with well-engineered and managed disposal facilities can significantly lessen the impacts of landfill on soil, air, and water.
• Landfills that are well-designed and operated ensure compliance with environmental preservation requirements and it ultimately ensures that the environment is free from contaminants.
• We should respect the planet. A keen appreciation and acknowledgment of how delightful the planet is, including the association of living and non-living things will assist us with taking advantage of the planet determinedly while additionally giving it an opportunity to thrive and revive.
• All of us should really rethink our expenditure needs. After huge purchases, we find out that the greater part of the items doesn’t make us as happy as we thought they would. In approaching our background, we ought to re-evaluate our utilization habits and furthermore purchase what we believe is vital and valuable for the betterment of both our well-being and nature.


Now, the question comes, what is the solution?


The key solution lies in the proper management, which was addressed as what it lacks. Apart from that, you must have heard of the slogans- Refuse, Reduce,





REUSE, RECYCLE AND ROT:


Refuse- Learn to say no. Say no to single use plastic, say no to straws. Say no to items that will immediately go to landfill and stay there permanently. Reduce- Don’t impulse buy and reduce your general consumption. Don’t buy products you know you will not use. Reduce the amount of general waste you create.
Reuse- Stop using disposable products at all. Replace them with sustainable alternatives. Say no to disposables and yes to reusables! If things break, try to repair and fix them.
Recycle- After refusing, reducing and reusing, there shouldn’t be much left to recycle. Just make sure you clean and separate your recycling properly and recycle them in their correct place. Rot- Turn your kitchen scraps into compost or set up your own worm composting bin. “So, why should you care?" Because if you don’t, it can and will lead to ending our existence. That is why, it is a must to care about our environment, in any way possible. Here’s a great thought to conclude- “The real work is still to come, but we can do this."





Bibliography

# https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/urbandevelopment/brief/solid-waste-management
# https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/speech/footprint-our-cities-time-build-better
# https://www.unep.org/resources/report/global-waste-management-outlook
# https://www.rolandberger.com/en/Insights/Publications/Waste-management-looking-at-a-global-challenge.html
# https://ifp.co.in/5354/waste-management-problems-and-solutions#
# https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-effects-solutions-of-landfills.php
# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groundwater_pollution#Others
# https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/advantages-disadvantages-landfills.php

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT



The environment is no one’s property to destroy; it’s everyone’s responsibility to protect. – Mohith Agadi



It is the effect of human activity on the environment in the form of creating environmental imbalance.
Some of the most common environmental impacts are:
• air pollution
• water pollution (seas, rivers, groundwater)
• soil pollution
• waste production
• noise pollution
• Damage to ecosystems and loss of biodiversity

Why is it necessary to measure the environmental impact of human activity?

Human well-being depends directly on biodiversity and ecosystems. It is therefore vital to try to measure, plan and minimize any activity that might alter the ecological balance.
All activities carried out by humans have an impact on ecosystems. Some cause irreversible effects on the environment, such as environmental pollution, extinction of species, depletion of resources, and habitat destruction. Moreover, as the human population grows, natural resources are being depleted. Improving the sustainability of human development is becoming increasingly urgent, and it is essential to measure, minimize and compensate for these impacts.





How is environmental impact measured?

Today, more than 100 countries have legislation that requires an Environmental Impact Assessment to be carried out for any project that may highly impact the ecosystems where it is due to take place. The Environmental Impact Assessment was created to evaluate such effects on ecosystems and was designed according to sustainable development indicators.
In addition, there is an international Natural Capital Coalition that works to enable business organizations to integrate their environmental dependencies and impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity into their finances.
Companies committed to reducing their environmental impact
• Reducing our environmental footprint. We are measuring our impact on the environment and setting objectives for carbon neutrality and reducing emissions.
• Integrating the climate change variable into our business. We are incorporating the recommendations of the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) into our financial planning, as well as including environmental, social, and governance (ESG) criteria in both investment and underwriting and defining low-carbon products.
• Promotion of the circular economy. We have minimized the generation of waste in our activity and positioned ourselves as an agent of change in the transition to this type of economy, by promoting products and services and supporting specialized companies in the sector.
• Biodiversity preservation. We are raising awareness of and supporting initiatives to protect ecosystems that are more sensitive to the effects of climate change.

Pros and Cons of environmental impacts regarding waste management


“The Earth is what we all have in common". And hence, we should make the best out of it. If we destroy our environment, we destroy earth.

Environmental Impacts and Waste Management are inter-dependent on each other. If waste management is done properly, the further environmental impacts would be positive. However, if waste management is not carried out properly, the further environmental impacts would be negative and therefore, it would damage Earth.

While we’re at it, let us discuss about the environmental impacts that would/are be carried out with proper and improper waste management. Let’s refer to them as ‘Pros’ and ‘Cons’.


PROS :


If waste management is carried out properly, the environmental impact would be this -:



1. Improves Air and Water Quality- Oceans provide food for 3.5 billion people, yet they are also treated as waste and wastewater disposal. On land, contaminated water from industry pollutes not only waterways but also the air we breathe. Fertilizers used in agriculture also contribute to nutrient contamination through running-off into rivers, lakes, and wetlands. As a result, these habitats become degraded, resulting in air and water pollution. If people become aware about how they are causing a serious and dangerous impact on the environment, they will find better alternatives. Therefore, if waste is not thrown into oceans, and various industries stop polluting waterways, (waste management is carried out properly) the air and water quality would have better results, than our current situation.

2. Reduces Greenhouse Emissions- Improper waste disposal and treatment can result in the release of a variety of greenhouse gases (GHGs), which contribute to global warming. Methane is the most significant GHG gas created by garbage. It is released when organic matter in landfills decomposes. GHGs are produced by other waste disposal methods as well, however they are mostly in the form of carbon dioxide (a less powerful GHG).

By reducing greenhouse gas emissions and conserving energy, waste prevention and recycling help to combat global climate change.

3. Conserves Natural Resources- As mentioned earlier, waste management helps in decreasing energy use, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, reducing the extraction of the virgin materials and minimizing their consumption, and hence helps to conserve natural resources. It also prioritizes environmental protection.



So now that, we have hovered upon the pros to environmental impacts regarding proper waste management, let us discuss about the hazardous impacts on our environment, if improper waste management takes place.


CONS :


If waste management is not carried out properly, the environmental impact would be this -:



1. Loss of Biodiversity- Poor waste management can harm biodiversity both directly (e.g. the consumption of plastic microbeads by marine wildlife) and indirectly (e.g. landfill sites, which provide ideal conditions for bacteria that produce methane – a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change). Unmanaged waste in our environment can also affect human health, particularly in underdeveloped places where people rely directly on healthy, functioning environments for survival (and where waste is not well managed, due to resource and technology limitations).

2. Soil Contamination- The main environmental problem associated with the disposal sites is the potential risk posed to the soil. Since the waste was disposed directly onto surface of soil, a number of contaminants including heavy metals readily penetrate and eventually they contaminate the soil and affect vegetation abundance of the area. And regarding this, change is unlikely to occur in the nearest future due to limitations on finance, shortage of technical resources and lack of institutional arrangements. 

Climate Change- Rising levels of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are causing changes in our climate, and some of these changes can be traced to solid waste. The manufacture, distribution, and use of products-as well as management of the resulting waste-all result in greenhouse gas emissions, which further lead to climate change, which drastically speaking, can and will completely ruin our ecosystem.


Now that we know how proper waste management can be of huge help to our environment, our Earth, we should all take the initiative towards the goal of having a proper waste management systems, which we have also discussed above.

Proper waste management is the key to solving major environmental issues.



Reflection

My name is Ashima Khetarpal. I am a Computer Science Educator at Aravali International School, Faridabad. A few months ago, I was given this golden opportunity by our visionary leader to be part of an innovative project - Global School Net and their Cyber Fair.
I am a part of the technical team of teachers under whose guidance students created this Website using HTML, CSS, Javascript, and Dreamweaver.
The world has just experienced the biggest move to the web that we’ve seen since the dawn of the internet. Cyberfair project really helped students understand the concepts of web development and the perfect way to get into programming, conceptualizing, development, and hosting the website by choosing web development. It will help not only to design the website but to shape aspirations into reality with our powerful website designing tools.
This helped the student to understand the structure of websites and how the architecture of the website works. I really had a brilliant experience working with our future techies.
Spending quality time with various software like HTML, CSS, Dreamweaver, and Sublime Text, I have learned a lot of new things. Being just as honest, learning code is not as hard as you think it is. If I were to speak to someone else embarking on this journey, I think there are only a few things they’d need to know.
Last but not the least, this project has by far proved to be one of the best learning experiences for both the students and me as an educator.

My name is Richa Khanna. I am a High School Social Science Educator at Aravali International School, Faridabad. My first acquaintance with this project-based learning was when I was called for being brief. I got thrilled on getting to know about this learning program.
I felt privileged to be involved into this project and put forward my insights on the topic. I went through the implementation guide to comprehend the process of its execution. Henceforth, I made my team by involving students, the young learners to explore, gain understanding about waste , waste segregation , its impact on environment and expand their horizon of knowledge while also paying efforts in making it a successful project. This project bought me closer to the environment and has generated a sense of responsible consumption as our topic suggest –‘ Junk or Treasure’- Protecting the Environment The young learners were exhilarated on knowing about this project. It provided them an opportunity to dig deep, Surveying from varied sources, interviewing , conducting campaigns , drafting questionnaires served as an evidence to their active involvement throughout the project.
This project provided the students opportunity to utilize all their gadget and digit skills which has also catered to their mind’s growth Also I saw how students from different grades, genders and backgrounds came together and created a cohesive team to build this project from scratch. It’s my pleasure to see them thriving into such assertive and confident individuals. They must have gained plenty of knowledge and experience being part of such an enormous project.

My name is Khushboo Gupta. I am a High School Social Science Educator at Aravali International School, Faridabad. This is my first time facilitating this type of project. I was really excited on getting to know about this learning program. I learned a lot during the whole process. It gave me a huge platform to learn. Henceforth, I worked with my team of students, the young learners to explore, gain understanding about waste, waste segregation , its impact on environment and expand their horizon of knowledge while also paying efforts in making it a successful project. This project bought me closer to the environment and has generated a sense of responsible consumption as our topic suggest –‘Junk or Treasure’- Protecting the Environment

What is the Topic:  Exploring the roots of WASTE MANAGEMENT FROM HOMES TO INDUSTRIES.



What are the objectives :


• To know about Waste management. 
• Understand the hazards of improper waste disposal. 
• Analyse the hardships faced and the hurdles overcome. 
• Exploring traditional waste management techniques used at home. 


2. What is the content :



This is to understand how the community and people of Faridabad has been dealing with waste and how do the see waste as JUNK OR TREASURE.

The contribution of the people and different organizations in management and segregation of waste.

Looking deeply into traditional waste management techniques used by our community especially by home makers.

We hope to bring awareness about the importance of waste management and sensitize young children towards different techniques to reuse, reduce and recycling waste used in our culture for generations.



3. How has the research been conducted :



The research method of this Cyber fair includes group discussion, personal participation, questionnaire, workshops, conducting Interviews, N



4. What is the progression of the research :



Excel ss to be added



5. Learning Outcomes :



Feeling connected to your roots, exploring one’s origins, has always fascinated humanity over the centuries. Our students were no less. This project also started with such a vision. It has brought a positive impact on the academic learnings of the students who participated in this project. 

While working on this project they have been able to demonstrate a complexity of understanding and improved ability to understand ambiguity. A tangible impact on their academic outcomes such as problem solving, critical thinking and cognitive development is clearly evident.  

They have developed a sense of improved social responsibility and citizenship skills. A greater inter cultural understanding can be observed among the student community.  

A new spectrum for research and publication has opened up which has not only benefitted the students rather has enhanced the community and Aravali Institutions relations. 

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